Glossary of Terms


Abduction Drawing away from the midline of the body
Acetabulum Cup shaped socket of the hip bone
Achilles Tendon A large tendon connecting the calf muscles to the heel bone
Adducted/adducted To move a limb or any other part towards the midline of the body
Anterior At or towards the front
Arthrogram X-ray with dye
Bilateral Affecting both sides
Breech Position of the baby in the womb, so that it will be delivered buttocks first
Calcaneum (os Calcis)/Calcaneus Heel bone/describes the position of the hind foot when in an upwards position
Congenital Present around the time of birth
DDH Developmental Dysplasia of the Hip Developmental Arising in infancy or childhood and dependent on growth
Dislocated The head of the thighbone is positioned outside the socket and cannot be re-centred (displaced)
Dorsal surface (dorsum) Top of foot
Dorsiflexion Bending the ankle so the foot points up
Dysplasia Lack of normal growth, in the hip often refers to under development
Epiphysis The growing section of bone
Eversion Turning the sole of the foot upward
Femoral Head Ball shaped top of thigh bone
Femur Thigh bone
Fibula Bone on the outer side of the leg below the knee
Gait Style of walking
Idiopathic A condition of which the cause is not known
Instability In the hip refers to a joint which has too much movement
Inversion Turning the sole of the foot inward
Lateral The outer edge
Lax Loose
Ligament Tough band of connective tissue that links two bones together at a joint
Metatarsal bones The five bones of the foot between the tarsal bones and the toes
Metatarsus varus or Metatarsus adductus Inward turning of the metatarsal which goes a pigeon toed appearance
Orthopaedics A branch of medicine that deals with bones and joints
Orthosis Splint or support
Ostearthritis Disease of wear and tear in a joint, causes pain and lack of mobility in the joint
Osteotomy Surgical division of the bone
Plantar Relating to the sole of the foot
Plantar flexion Bending the ankle so the foot points down
Plantar surface Sole of the foot
Plantigrade Walking normally on the whole sole of the foot
Prognosis A prediction of a future outcome
Pronation Foot rolling inwards
Reduction To restore a joint to its correct position, closed reduction is done by manipulation. Open reduction is done by surgery
Subluxated Partial dislocation of a joint, so that the bones are mis-aligned, but still in contact
Tarsal bone Bones in the foot between the ankle joint and the metatarsal bones
Tendon A tough fibrous tissue that connects muscle to the bone
Tenotomy The surgical cutting of a tendon
Tibia Shin bone (next to fibula)(
Ultrasound A technique which uses high frequency sound waves to build up a picture of soft tissue and organs in the body
Unilateral Affecting one side
Valgus Directed away from the midline of the body
Varus Directed towards the midline of the body
X-Ray A technique which uses very low dose radiation to image parts of the body, especially useful for imag